Propping up a Bankrupt, Illegitimate Regime

Added to this are the 207 forcible disappearances since 2001.

These killings and forcible disappearances are carried out by death squads composed by special operations units of the army[1], police, or paramilitary forces based on lists provided by military intelligence units.

The counterinsurgency programs of the AFP are based on the unconventional warfare and counterinsurgency strategies developed by the U.S. Armed Forces and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) particularly that on “low intensity conflict.” These can be found in U.S. Army manuals of the 1960s and 1980s. Later developments incorporated in Oplan Bantay Laya are reflective of U.S. defense strategies after 2001.


[1] The Philippine Army Special Operations Command was organized in 1996. It is composed by seven Special Forces Battalions and three Scout Ranger Battalions. Among the tasks of these PASOCOM units are the conduct of unconventional warfare and counter-terrorist operations, and the organization, training, and control of paramilitary units.

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